The Turkish Presidential Seal is composed of a sun (16 points/rays) surrounded by 16 stars. The sun represents the present Turkish Republic and the stars represent the 16 independent Turkish Empires that have been founded throughout history. These are:
1. The Great Hun Empire (204 BC – 216 AD)
founded by Mete (Bagatir) bordering Siberia in the North, Tibet-Kashmir in the South, the Pacific Ocean in the East and the Caspian Sea in the West (total area 18,000,000 sq. km).
2. The Western Hun Empire (48 – 216 AD)
founded by Panu covering the area over present day Central Asia.
3. The European Hun Empire (375 – 454 AD)
founded by Muncuk, Oktar, Rua and Aybars (brothers) covering the area of present day Southern Russia, Romania, Northern Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Southern and Central Germany (total area 4,000,000 sq. km). Gradual decline after 454 AD.
4. The White Hun Empire (420 – 552 AD)
founded by Aksuvar (Aksungur) covering half of Northern India, Afghanistan and part of Turkistan (total area 3,500,000 sq. km).
5. The Gokturk Empire (552 – 743 AD)
founded by Bumin Khan (Tumen) in the inaccessible valleys of the Altai Mountains (Ergenekon)(total area 18,000,000 sq. km).
6. The Avar Empire (562 – 796 AD)
founded by Bayar Khan covering the area between the Volga River, Hungary and Bessarabiya.
7. The Hazar Empire (602 – 1016 AD)
founded by the Hazar tribe of Gokturks who migrated to the West and settled in the area stretching from the Caucasian Mountains to the Danube River and to the middle of Russia. Its greatest ruler was Hakan Yusuf.
8. The Uygur State (740 – 1335 AD)
founded by Kutlug Bilgekul Khan covering Central Asia and northern Mongolia.
9. The Karahan (932 – 1212 AD)
founded by Saltuk Bugra Khan covering the Trans-Oxus area including Issyk and Balkash lakes.
10. The Gazneli (962 – 1183 AD)
founded by Alptekin covering the area from the Trans-Oxus to the Ganges River, from the shores of the Caspian Sea to the steppes of the Pamir (total area 4,700,000 sq. km).
11. The Great Seljuk Empire (1040 – 1157 AD)
founded by Seljuk Khan bordering Balkash and Issyk lakes and Tarim Derya in the East, Aegean and the Mediterrenean shores in the West, Aral Lake, Caspian Sea, Caucasian and the Black Sea in the North and Arabia and Gulf of Oman in the South (total area 10,000,000 sq. km).
12. The Harzemshah (1077 – 1231 AD)
founded by Kudrettin Mehmet (Harzemshah) covering Persia, Southern Caucasia, Dagestan, Afghanistan and most of Central Asia (total area 5,000,000 sq. km).
13. The Golden Horde (1224 – 1502 AD)
founded by Batur Khan covering Eastern Europe, the Western Urals, the Crimea and the area to the north of the Volga.
14. The Great Timur Empire (1369 – 1501 AD)
founded by Timur Gurgani bordering the Balkans in the West, the Volga in the North, Indian Ocean in the South and Central Asia in the East.
15. The Babur Empire (1526 – 1858 AD)
founded by Babur Shah covering Afghanistan and India (total area 2,700,000 sq. km).
16. The Ottoman Empire (1299 – 1922 AD)
founded by Osman covering Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Syria, Iraq, Anatolia, Caucasia, the Crimea, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece, Cyprus (total area 20,000,000 sq. km).
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